I got aware of this issue last week after installing a Fedora 18 virtual machine on Fusion 5. The installation of the Tools went as expected but when the install process launched the vmware-tools-config,pl script I got the typical error of not being able to find the Linux Kernel headers.
I installed the kernel-headers and kernel-devel packages with yum.
Fired up again the configuration script and got the same error. The problem is that since kernel 3.7 all the kernel header files have been relocated to a new path and because of that the script is not able to find them. To solve it just create a symlink of the version.h file from the new location to the old one.
With the problem fixed I launched the config script again and the tools finally got configured without problems.